Category: wlwbmwds

Chile book Portugal semi at Confed Cup

Chile book Portugal semi at Confed Cup

first_imgGermany progressed as group winners following a 3-1 victory over Cameroon in Sochi, with the world champions to face Mexico for a place in the July 2 final in Saint Petersburg.Chile’s coach insisted they had not underestimated Australia after Troisi gave the Socceroos a shock lead.“In fact that could have been a quarter-final in the World Cup, such was the level of this game,” said Juan Antonio Pizzi.“We are happy to reach the semi-finals and reach that aim. Now we must refocus on our next ambition.”Australia coach Ange Postecoglou regretted missed opportunities as they bow out of the Confed Cup after two draws and a defeat.“We wanted to get out of the group and we haven’t, so we are disappointed,” said Postecoglou.“They (Chile) are a world class team, a fantastic team, and have played some of the best teams in the world off the park.“We needed energy to face that and the guys who came in did a great job.“From my perspective, it was a great performance.”Veteran forward Tim Cahill collected his 100th international cap at Spartak Stadium, joining long-serving former goalkeeper Mark Schwarzer (109) as the only other Australia player to reach the landmark.Alexis Sanchez went tumbling to ground early on following a last-ditch intervention from Mark Milligan, but the video assistant referee dismissed penalty claims as replays showed a clear touch from the Australian defender.Claudio Bravo returned for Chile following a calf injury and the Manchester City goalkeeper produced a smart block to deny a lunging Massimo Luongo, although Australia forged ahead on 42 minutes.Australia’s forward James Troisi scores in the nets of Chile’s goalkeeper Claudio Bravo during the 2017 Confederations Cup group B football match June 25, 2017 © AFP / Natalia KOLESNIKOVAA risky pass from Bravo was intercepted inside the Chile half, allowing Robbie Kruse to steer the ball across the face of the box to an unmarked Troisi who clipped over the advancing keeper.Arturo Vidal nearly replied instantly when his stooping header was blocked on the line by Milligan with the rebound eluding Jose Fuenzalida.Australian centre-back Trent Sainsbury missed a glorious chance for a second goal before the break, lashing wildly over on the volley after Chile’s defence momentarily switched off.But the introduction of Rodriguez and Pablo Hernandez at half-time proved crucial as Chile levelled midway through the second half.Eduardo Vargas beat his marker to a looping ball in the area, knocking down into the path of Rodriguez who smuggled the ball beyond Matt Ryan for his first international goal.Vargas headed fractionally wide after Sanchez had escaped down the left and picked out his striking partner, while Jamie MacLaren miscued badly in front of Bravo after a brilliant delivery from Troisi before the contest gradually petered out.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Chile’s forward Martin Rodriguez celebrates after scoring a goal during the 2017 Confederations Cup group B football match against Australia at the Spartak Stadium in Moscow on June 25, 2017 © AFP / Yuri KADOBNOVMOSCOW, Russian Federation, Jun 25 – Martin Rodriguez rescued a 1-1 draw for Chile against Australia on Sunday to send the South American champions through to a Confederations Cup semi-final against Portugal.James Troisi steered Australia ahead on 42 minutes in Moscow, but Chile replied through half-time substitute Rodriguez on 67 minutes to advance as Group B runners-up behind Germany.last_img read more

Swansea snap up former Forest starlet on two-year deal

Swansea snap up former Forest starlet on two-year deal

first_img1 Swansea have signed young striker James Demetriou on a two-year contract.The Australian-born Cyprus Under-21 international has linked up with Garry Monk’s side after leaving Nottingham Forest in the summer.The 19-year-old, who joined Forest from Sydney Olympic in September 2013, did not make a first-team appearance for the Championship club but impressed for their Under-21 side.He was offered a new deal by Forest earlier this year but turned that down and has now made the switch to the Liberty Stadium.“My short-term aim is get game time and try to score as many goals as I can, but long-term I want to break into the first-team here and impress the manager,” Demetriou told Swansea’s official website.“It’s great to be here. It has taken a long time to get sorted but it feels good and I just want to get my head down now and focus on the season ahead.“Swansea are a Premier League club, they play a great brand of football and they are a team that gives young players an opportunity.“My short-term aim is get game time and try to score as many goals as I can, but long-term I want to break into the first-team here and impress the manager.” Garry Monk last_img read more

How to fix English football: Dietmar Hamann’s five-point plan

How to fix English football: Dietmar Hamann’s five-point plan

first_imgSacked Fulham manager Felix Magath remains convinced English football still has much to learn from German football.Although the controverisial 61-year-old’s time at Craven Cottage ended with the club at the foot of the Championship, amid tales of bizarre injury treatments, he still feels the game in this country is way behind many of its European counterparts.And former Liverpool and Newcastle star Dietmar Hamann, who won 59 caps for Germany, also feels major changes are needed to the game in this country to boost the amount of homegrown players coming through.Speaking on the Colin Murray show on Wednesday, Hamann outlined his five-point plan to rescue English football…1) Sideline the Professional Footballers’ Assocation and make youngsters earn their money“In England, the PFA is too powerful. Unions generally do more harm than good. I’m all for players being represented and somebody being there if there is an issue but, whenever anything happens, the PFA jumps in. In Germany, even the best players have a basic wage, which is topped up by appearance money and bonuses. In England, if you have one or two good years, there will be players who haven’t played in the Premier League and are earning £40-50,000-a-week. They have that money for the next four or five years. That’s £10-12million. These kids, even if they get injured, are not interested anymore or don’t perform, they will still be sorted for life. That takes the edge off these kids.“It’s irresponsible to give a 19 or 20-year-old player a contract which makes him earn £15-20million, guaranteed. I’ve not got a problem if they’re 30 and they’ve turned out to be the best player in the world, but you can’t guarantee them that sort of money at that age. At Bayern Munich they will be on appearances and bonuses. Obviously the older they get, or the more they do for the club, the basic wage will go up. I don’t have a problem if Philipp Lahm or Bastian Schweinsteiger get 60-80 per cent guaranteed, but the rest of the Bundesliga will only have a maximum of half guaranteed. If you go outside the top two teams, they will be on appearances and bonuses.“The reason I’m saying this about the PFA, is I spoke to a Premier League manager the week before last. I said to him, ‘how can you pay players guaranteed, why don’t you have appearance money? It’s got to take something off the players’. I’m not saying that’s the case with everybody but there will be some players who think, ‘well, if I get dropped and play in the reserves then I don’t care because I will earn the same money’. He said to me the PFA won’t allow it.“In Germany, if you’re injured, you get paid for six weeks and after that you have to sort your own insurance to get additional income. Players look after themselves. Yes, you can have a drink and a fag, but they have to look after themselves because they know, if they get injured and don’t play, they earn only half the money. I didn’t come to England because the money was guaranteed. I probably earned less in my first season at Newcastle, where I signed for four or five years, than I did at Bayern Munich. That never bothered me. What Felix Magath is saying is the mindset in England has got to change. If you’re 17 or 18, you won’t know any different. When I grew up I always had to play to earn money. In England, that’s not the case.”2) Stop the influx of foreign youngsters“There are too many foreign kids in academies. There is no reason to believe English kids are less talented than a Spanish kid, a French kid, a German kid, a Brazilian kid. If you go to some of the top clubs, you watch the under-18s and you have got two or three English kids, sometimes none. It’s no surprise the national team suffers if these kids end up in the lower leagues.”3) Make education a priority for budding English footballers:“I think education is a massive thing as well. In Germany, you do the school work and then you train. School comes first, no matter who you are. In England, players at 15 or 16 train like professionals and are led to believe they have got a future in the game. But the numbers say one out of 100 make a living out of the game, never mind play in the Premier League. In Germany, they do the work and then they play football.”4) Put more focus on finding and developing homegrown goalkeepers“England haven’t produced any goalkeepers in the last ten or 15 years. They had one English goalkeeper in the top ten of the Premier League last season and that was Joe Hart. And it’s simply not good enough. If you look at other leagues, for some reason, England don’t produce goalkeepers.”5) Change the loan system“Chelsea have got 26 players out on loan at the moment. The big clubs horde players and send them out on loan. If you look at the Chelsea team now, how many players have been out on loan? None of them. So these players out on loan, what are the chances of any of them featuring in the first-team?“If they were somewhere else, like a Swansea or West Brom, they may get first-team football, play in the Premier League and become better players. If you send them away, they lose their identity and feel worthless to a certain extent. There are players out there who have had five, six, seven, eight loan spells within two or three years and they lose their identity. And when they come back they don’t want to know about the club.“There will be players on the Chelsea wage bill, out on loan somewhere, on more than Raheem Sterling at Liverpool [£30,000 per week]. And that says all you need to know. In Germany, if you loan a player out, you have to extend his contract for the period of that loan. So if Bayern Munich sends a player out on loan for one season they have to extend his contract for one year.”What do you think about Hamann’s comments? Is he right about how to fix English football? What would you do? Leave your comments below…last_img read more

Jon Walters explains why Stoke ‘bullied’ Arsenal during Wenger’s reign

Jon Walters explains why Stoke ‘bullied’ Arsenal during Wenger’s reign

first_img Ronaldo warned Lukaku how hard scoring goals in Serie A would be before Inter move 2 REVEALED huge blow “We used to not let teams out. If they wanted to play out we’d set it up so they could play out to the centre-half, but I would full-on sprint, everyone would be behind me and that just gets the crowd going.“Once we got the crowd going, they were on the back foot.”Another former Stoke man, Dave Kitson, previously told talkSPORT that Stoke’s excessive aggression against Arsenal directly led to Ramsey’s horror injury in February 2010. no dice Green reveals how he confronted Sarri after Chelsea’s 6-0 defeat at Man City Jon Walters admits Stoke were always deliberately aggressive against Arsenal – because they knew Arsene Wenger ‘hated’ facing them.Stoke’s ultra-physical tactics and Wenger’s complaints and the Ryan Shawcross tackle that broke Aaron Ramsey’s leg have helped create a genuine rivalry between the two sides.The Gunners traditionally struggled at the bet365 Stadium, from the Potters’ promotion in 2008 until their relegation last season – and Walters, the former Stoke winger, claims to know why.“We used to bully Arsenal. We knew they didn’t like coming,” he told talkSPORT. Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT ADVICE Walters says Stoke enjoyed playing Arsenal tense Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card Charlton vs Doncaster (Friday, 7:45pm) – talkSPORT 2Manchester City vs Watford (Saturday, 5pm) – talkSPORT LATEST FOOTBALL NEWS Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury shining gameday cracker “There was a bit with Arsene Wenger and the crowd. The atmosphere was like nothing else.“The Stoke fans were really up for it, they generated a great noise and Arsenal hated coming to the Britannia.“First challenge, I’d win the ball but I’d go right through whoever I was pressing against. 2 Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won REPLY talkSPORT is your home of live football! Here’s what’s coming up on talkSPORT and talkSPORT 2… Ramsey suffered a horror injury after a challenge by Shawcross He said: “We crossed the line because we went hell for leather to try and win that game and be aggressive, which was a reflection of the way Tony [Pulis] wanted us to play.“We didn’t go out to break anyone’s leg. We did go out to be physical and in that game we crossed the line.”Six months after that incident, Wenger took aim at Pulis’ tactics and labelled Stoke a ‘rugby team’. LIVE ON talkSPORT Premier League Team of the Season so far, including Liverpool and Leicester stars “We’d laugh about that,” Walters added.“No one goes out to deliberately injure anyone. Yeah, you’d have a firm tackle and get stuck in, you knew the Arsenal players were wilt.“But saying we were a rugby team?” Berahino hits back at b******t Johnson criticism – ‘I was in a dark place at Stoke’ last_img read more

HISTORY, TRADITION, INNOVATION AND THE BEST OF BOURBON TO BE POURED DURING 6TH ANNUAL UNBRIDLED EVE DERBY GALA

HISTORY, TRADITION, INNOVATION AND THE BEST OF BOURBON TO BE POURED DURING 6TH ANNUAL UNBRIDLED EVE DERBY GALA

first_imgMaking the event even more of a celebration of Kentucky’s Native spirit, Jim Beam Master Distiller Fred Noe and his son Freddie; Wes Henderson, Co-Founder and Chief Innovation Officer, Angel’s Envy; Maker’s Mark Chairman Emeritus Bill Samuels, Jr. and President Rob Samuels and Al Young, Brand Ambassador for Four Roses Bourbon will all be attending and walking the red carpet.   Fans of other spirits are not forgotten, as spirits as diverse as Grey Goose, KetelOne and SVEDKA vodkas; and Casa Noble, Don Julio and 1800 tequilas all feature in both unique cocktails and traditional recipes with a twist like the Smoked Chili Margarita and the “Leaf It All Behind.”  Number Juan Tequila will also be on hand.Since its inception in 2012, the Unbridled Charitable Foundation, Inc. has supported 31 charities with $1,626,108 in both direct proceeds from the Unbridled Eve Derby Gala and additional funding received due to exposure gained in conjunction with the Unbridled Eve Derby Gala. The two primary beneficiaries for this year’s Unbridled Eve Gala are Blessings in a Backpack and Fund for the Arts, both 501(c)(3) non-profit organizations.  Additionally, the Animal Care Society, APRON, Inc., Down Syndrome of Louisville, Jefferson Community and Technical College Student Emergency Fund, Kentucky Natural Lands Trust, Kentucky State Police Trooper Island Camp, Louisville Dental Society Mobile Dental Van, Metro United Way, Miracle League of Louisville, Inc., Operation Homefront, SOS International dba Supplies Over Seas, Super Student Athletes, USA Cares, WESTEC (The Blue House) and Winter HAYven will benefit.Full Cocktail List Bourbon Cocktails:Angel’s Envy: Angel’s Envy Bourbon over Glace Luxury Ice BallBlack Walnut Season: Ezra Brooks 90, Benedictine, Aperol, Fee Brothers Orgeat syrup, Fee Brothers Black Walnut bittersBlood Orange Old Fashioned: Maker’s 46 Bourbon Whisky, orange peel-infused simple syrup, Stirrings Blood Orange bitters, Angostura bitters, orange.Cultured Lines Up All Night: Ezra Brooks Bourbon Cream, Rebel Yell Small Batch bourbon, Grind coffee liqueur; Café Bustelo coffee grindsJim Beam Black Kentucky Mule: Jim Beam Black Bourbon Whiskey, Regatta ginger beer, lime juiceKentucky Bull Rider Mule: Four Roses Single Barrel Bourbon, Ocean Spray 100% Ruby Red Grapefruit juice, Regatta ginger beerManhattan Down: Crown Royal Reserve Whiskey, Cinzano sweet vermouth, Hella Orange Bitters, Filthy Foods Amarena CherriesStrawberry Basil Lemonade: Maker’s Mark Bourbon, Simply Truth lemonade, Strawberry Re’al syrup, basilWalk in the Park: Four Roses Yellow Label, Lillet Rouge, rosemary simple syrup, Schweppes soda water, lemon juice19th Century: Four Roses Small Batch Bourbon, lemon juice, DeKuyper Crème De Cacao, Lillet RougeCocktails featuring other spirits:Dirty Martini: KetelOne Vodka, Cinzano dry vermouth, Filthy Foods Clean Filtered Olive Brine Juice, Filthy Foods Blue Cheese Stuffed OlivesGrey Goose Lily Perfect: Grey Goose Vodka, DeKuyper Triple Sec, Ocean Spray Cranberry Juice, lemon juice, simple syrupJalisco Breeze: Casa Noble Crystal Tequila, Real Kiwi syrup, Cooley Mint sourJim Beam Apple and Soda: Jim Beam Apple Liqueur, Schweppes Sparkling soda, lemonKnob Creek Rye Old Fashioned: Knob Creek Rye, Angostura bitters, brown sugar simple syrup, grapefruitLeaf It All Behind: 1800 Reposado Tequila, Captain Morgan’s Rum, Dole Pineapple juice, Rich Sage simple syrup, Schweppes sparking sodaRazz River Cocktail: SVEDKA Raspberry Vodka, Cinnamon simple syrup, sour mix and Ocean Spray CranApple juiceSmoked Chili Margarita: DonJulio Reposado Tequila, triple sec, lime juice, agave nectar syrup, Hella Smoked Chili bittersSpring Fling: 1800 Coconut Tequila Liqueur, lime juice, mint simple syrup, coconut milk, Sprite “Bourbon Royalty” Henderson, Noe, Samuels also among attendees of “Party with a Heart”Guests at the 6th annual Unbridled Eve Derby Gala taking place on Friday, May 5, 2017 at the Galt House Hotel Grand Ballroom in Louisville will have a choice of 19 specialty cocktails, created exclusively for the event by Joe Daily; Director of Mixology and Spirits Education for Gala sponsor Southern Glazer’s Wine and Spirits. Grey Goose LillyAngel’s With Ice BallThis year’s Signature cocktails spotlight Kentucky Bourbon with Angels Envy, Ezra Brooks 90, Knob Creek, and Jim Beam Black each headlining a recipe. Maker’s Mark products are featured in two cocktails, while bourbon expressions from Four Roses are key ingredients in three.  Selections include two takes on the Old Fashioned – one made with Knob Creek Rye and brown sugar simple syrup; and a version marrying Makers 46 and flavors of blood orange.  Classic cocktails like the Mule and the Manhattan are also in the lineup; with Four Roses, Jim Beam Black and Crown Royal Reserve Whiskey providing the spirit base.last_img read more

Rumor: EBay Trying to Sell StumbleUpon

Rumor: EBay Trying to Sell StumbleUpon

first_imgTags:#news#web A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Related Posts 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Marketcenter_img According to a report on TechCrunch, eBay is trying to sell the popular recommendation engine StumbleUpon, which eBay bought for $75 million in early 2007. It was never clear to us why eBay bought StumbleUpon in the first place. When the acquisition was first announced, we speculated that eBay would use StumbleUpon’s technology to create a new, viral way of shopping. In the end, though, eBay never integrated StumbleUpon into its business.In early 2007, we complained that eBay’s line-up of new services started to look very chaotic. Now, with its auction business slowly declining, it would only make sense for eBay to focus on its core competencies again instead of investing time and money into products that do not contribute to its main business. StumbleUpon was a bargain at $75 million and probably a worthwhile experiment for eBay, but now that eBay’s future does not look as rosy as it once did, we think it only makes sense for eBay to sell it off again. According to TechCrunch, eBay has hired Deutsche Bank to find a buyer, though the asking price is not clear.We contacted eBay about these rumors and will update this post once we get a response.Skype? It would be easy to draw parallels to eBay’s acquisition of Skype, which eBay bought for the staggering amount of $2.6 billion. Skype, too, was never fully integrated into eBay’s business model. However, as Peter Kafka notes, this extremely high purchase price also makes a sale very difficult now, unless eBay is willing to take a loss. Only a handful of companies are able to pay $3 billion or more, which leaves Google as one of the few potential candidates. frederic lardinois Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hostinglast_img read more

Canada Lags in Cloud Adoption Due to Security Concerns [Infographic]

Canada Lags in Cloud Adoption Due to Security Concerns [Infographic]

first_imgAccording to data visualized in an infographic from Techvibes, Canada lags in cloud adoption with only 47% of Canadian business actively using cloud computing. By comparison, 70% of U.S. businesses, 68% of U.K. businesses and 61% of German businesses use cloud computing. The number one reason for avoiding the cloud? Security concerns. Cognitive Automation is the Immediate Future of… klint finley Tags:#enterprise#Trends This data is quite different from the data compiled by BitNami, Cloud.com and Zenoss which indicates that most companies are not yet implementing cloud computing strategies. This suggests to me that TechVibes’ sources are using a more broad definition of “cloud” (TechVibes CA and Angus Reid as data sources). For example – does RIM’s BlackBerry e-mail service (which uses servers hosted by RIM) count as cloud computing?One particularly interesting discrepancy is the matter of security. A small but sizable percentage (32%) of companies in the BitNami/Cloud.com/Zenoss survey actually cited security as a perceived benefit of cloud computing, not a risk.Photo by Jeffrey Bell 3 Areas of Your Business that Need Tech Now Related Posts IT + Project Management: A Love Affair Massive Non-Desk Workforce is an Opportunity fo…last_img read more

New York Allows Itemized Deductions, Decoupling from Federal Tax Changes

New York Allows Itemized Deductions, Decoupling from Federal Tax Changes

first_imgNew York will let taxpayers itemize deductions on income tax returns, differing from federal tax treatment in several areas.The Department of Taxation issued a technical memorandum explaining that, as of 2018, New York will not conform certain personal income tax Internal Revenue Code changes that were made by the TCJA.Itemized DeductionsTaxpayers are permitted to itemize their deductions for New York State income tax purposes for tax years 2018 and after, even if they did not itemize it on their federal income tax return. Since New York has opted not to follow the changes made by the TCJA, taxpayers may claim deductions on their New York personal income tax returns which they are otherwise not permitted to claim for federal income tax purposes. For example, taxpayers can claim deductions for:state and local real estate taxes paid, including amounts over the $10,000 federal limit;casualty and theft losses including those incurred outside a federally declared disaster area;unreimbursed employee business expenses; andcertain other miscellaneous deductions that taxpayers are no longer allowed to claim federally (e.g., tax preparation fees, investment expenses, and safe deposit box fees).Alimony or Separate Maintenance PaymentsNew York opted not to follow changes made by the TCJA to the treatment of alimony or separate maintenance payments made under an alimony or separation agreement that was executed or modified after December 31, 2018. Taxpayers, when calculating their New York adjusted gross income (NYAGI), are required to:subtract from their federal adjusted gross income (FAGI) any applicable alimony or separate maintenance payments they made in a tax year, andadd to FAGI any applicable alimony or separate maintenance payments they received in the tax year.Qualified Moving Expenses Reimbursement and Moving ExpensesNew York opted not to follow changes made by the TCJA to the deduction for moving expenses and to the exclusion from gross income (wages) for moving expenses reimbursement for tax years 2018 through 2025. Further, New York will continue to allow taxpayers to exclude qualified moving expenses reimbursement and moving expenses from their NYAGI.Empire State Child Tax CreditFor computing the Empire State child tax credit for New York, taxpayers are not permitted to use their current tax year’s federal child tax credit or additional child tax credit. Instead, the credit will now be based on the 2017 federal credits and income.529 College Savings AccountNew York opted not to follow changes made by the TCJA to the types of withdrawals that are allowed from a Qualified Tuition Program (QTP) account. Accordingly, the withdrawals for kindergarten through 12th grade school tuition are not qualified withdrawals under the New York 529 college savings account program. Further, withdrawals dispersed in cash or in kind, from college saving accounts and not used for the higher education of the designated beneficiary are considered nonqualified withdrawals.TSB-M-18(6)I, New York Department of Taxation and Finance, December 28, 2018, ¶409-393Login to read more tax news on CCH® AnswerConnect or CCH® Intelliconnect®.Not a subscriber? Sign up for a free trial or contact us for a representative.last_img read more

Seventeen volunteers let this worm live inside them to help defeat a dangerous disease

Seventeen volunteers let this worm live inside them to help defeat a dangerous disease

first_img At 2:15 p.m., Roestenberg huddles in a small meeting room with three colleagues. The worms are not drugs, but they need to be released for use just like an experimental drug would be. The scientists check numbers on some documents against data on a computer screen, then they sign a form. The experiment can begin.Twenty minutes later, back in the infection room, the volunteers stretch out their arms so that a little metal cylinder, a few centimeters in diameter, can be taped to their skin. Carefully, an assistant pipettes a few drops of water, containing exactly 20 parasites, into each cylinder. The volunteers are nervous, but they say they are motivated. “I like the fact that the study is related to vaccines, because I’ve worked in that field before,” says one, a young scientist. The woman next to him says she comes from East Africa and knows the disease firsthand. They will also be paid €1000 for their time.Once infected, the volunteers will return to the lab every week so the research team can test their blood for a molecule called CAA, which the worms regurgitate from their stomachs. CAA’s presence will indicate that the worms are still alive; in future trials, its absence might mean that a vaccine or drug has worked.Some schistosomiasis scientists agree that the potential benefits justify the minimal risks. “My hope is that it would hugely accelerate identification of worthwhile candidate vaccines,” says Alison Elliott of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, who works at a joint Ugandan and U.K. research unit in Entebbe. She is interested in establishing the model there; people in Uganda, a country badly affected by schistosomiasis, might react differently to a vaccine if they were exposed to the worms in childhood, she explains. At a recent stakeholders’ meeting, “Ethics and regulatory colleagues were very supportive of taking discussions of the model forward, and community representatives are already keen for the opportunity to volunteer!” Elliott added in an email.“It’s itching a little bit,” one of the Leiden volunteers says 5 minutes into the exposure. After half an hour, when the infested water is removed from the volunteers’ forearms, red spots reveal where the parasites have entered their new hosts. Then, close to 4 p.m., the clock stops ticking; the volunteers head home and Roestenberg and her colleagues go out for a coffee. 3 2 By Kai KupferschmidtFeb. 21, 2018 , 4:25 PM At 12:05 p.m. on a Thursday in February, a lab technician takes a six-well plate containing a solitary red snail and places it in a heated water bath under a strong light. The light and warmth signal hundreds of tiny larval parasites to stream out of the mollusk. Now, the clock starts ticking for Meta Roestenberg, an infectious disease physician here at Leiden University Medical Center. She has about 4 hours to launch a unique, controversial experiment in which she will let the parasites burrow into the arms of four healthy volunteers. If she waits too long, the larvae start to die.Roestenberg and her colleagues are infecting people with Schistosoma mansoni, one of five tiny waterborne worm species that cause schistosomiasis, a disease that sickens millions of people in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America and kills thousands each year. There is no schistosomiasis vaccine and only one old, inadequate drug, praziquantel, to treat it. Infecting humans could help speed up the development of new interventions. Roestenberg has designed the experiment to prevent the parasites from reproducing, and she says the risk to volunteers is extremely low.But not low enough, some scientists argue, because there is no guarantee that subjects will get rid of their parasites when the study is over. “I would not volunteer for this study and if I had a son or daughter who wanted to volunteer, I would recommend against it,” says Daniel Colley, a schistosomiasis researcher at the University of Georgia in Athens.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Worms mature, mate, and lay eggs. Parasites to the people Researchers have long grown Schistosoma mansoni in the lab, using hamsters. Now, they are also infecting humans with the parasitic worms. Larvae emerge from snail. 1 EYE OF SCIENCE/SCIENCE SOURCE 4center_img Male and female larvae are used to infect hamster. 5 In nature, male and female Schistosoma mansoni worms pair up within the host. Studies in which people are purposely infected with malaria, cholera, and flu are on the rise, but they haven’t been done with schistosomiasis, in part because damage from the S. mansoni eggs can be irreversible. The goal of the current study, which began in early 2017, is to find out whether Roestenberg’s infection model is safe; if so, she hopes to test a vaccine later this year.At 1:35 p.m., Roestenberg walks to the room where the volunteers will be infected. She opens a transparent plastic container that contains epinephrine, antihistamines, and corticosteroids. “This is the emergency box,” she says—in case a subject has a strong allergic reaction. None of the 13 volunteers infected so far has, although one who was infected with 30 larvae developed a strong fever. In another precaution, the volunteers have been tested to rule out risk factors such as HIV infection and pregnancy. In nature, people become infected with both male and female parasites, but Roestenberg uses only males, so there will be no eggs and thus, she says, no symptoms. And when the study ends in 12 weeks, the volunteers will be given praziquantel to cure them.That drug, Colley emphasizes, is “not terribly effective.” But Roestenberg says that even if it fails, volunteers needn’t worry. “The ethics board asked me: ‘If one worm survives even after multiple treatments, what will happen to that person?’ And I said: ‘They’ll probably live to be 100.’” The board gave her its blessing. Colley agrees the risk is low, but still, S. mansoni has an average life span of 5 to 10 years. “That is a long time to have something as ugly as a schistosome living in your blood vessels, putting out excrement and things.” At 1:05 p.m., the technician takes the plate out of the bath. The larvae are ready to be harvested. Viewed under a microscope, they move around frantically, like minipropellers. Another technician removes one drop, dilutes it, adds iodine to kill the parasites, and counts them. That allows the researchers to calculate how many are left in the well: 574. They need only 80 today, 20 per volunteer.A snail population in an African lake could shed millions of these larvae into the water on a single day, each equipped with a chemical sensor that lets it home in on humans entering the water. After penetrating the skin, they migrate to the liver, where they mature and mate. Male-female couples stay together and move to blood vessels in the bowel, where they can reside for years, shedding hundreds of eggs a day. Most eggs end up in urine and feces, and if they make their way back into the lake they may infect fresh snails. But some get trapped in the liver, kidneys, or spleen, causing damage and leading to pain, blood loss, malnutrition, and sometimes death.Researchers in this same lab recreated the parasite’s life cycle decades ago, with hamsters taking the place of humans. That allowed them to produce and study S. mansoni. Now, Roestenberg wants to bring humans back into the mix. Field trials, especially of vaccines, are hugely expensive and complex, and the risk of failure is considerable. A controlled infection study can act as a gatekeeper, she says: “It gives you an indication whether something can work in humans or not.”  Male larvae are allowed to burrow into arm ofvolunteer. N. DESAI/SCIENCE Eggs are harvested from liver and used to infect snails. Seventeen volunteers let this worm live inside them to help defeat a dangerous diseaselast_img read more